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Kemono (Japanese 獣, ケモノ, or けもの "beast") is a genre of Japanese art and character design that prominently features fictional anthropomorphic or sentient animal characters in human-like settings and situations. It is used widely in drawing, painting, manga, anime, and video game designs, many of which are popular in the rest of the world. Human-like animal characters are called Jūjin (Japanese 獣人 or じゅうじん "therianthrope").
Their unique design differs from artist to artist, but in general they combine popular character design with animal traits deemed cute and endearing. It can be largely agreed upon by the fandom that the kemono style lies in the face and the eyes. (Example: Smaller snouts.)
Most kemono character designs retain a fundamentally human personality, seldom acting like the real animals after which they are designed. As such, kemono are usually shown living the way normal humans live in the same setting: speaking normal language, wearing normal clothes, eating normal food, living in normal homes, in ways that blur their distinction from ordinary humans.
Currently, kemono art is often distributed through Japanese fanzine circles, "doujinshi." Fans of kemono are called kemona or kemoners (ケモナー kemonā), from kemono and English -er; this had once been controversial.
There is also kemono which depicts young animals, much like cub art: kemololi (female cub) / kemoshota (male cub).
Kemono and furry
Though based on very different cultural ideals, kemono and furry fandom on the Internet can occasionally overlap, both geographically and in influence. Some kemono artists appeal to both at the same time.
Due to similarity in subject matter, kemono fans are also frequently interested in furry art (and vice versa.)
In early 2010, Kemonochan was created as an image board for English-speaking users who are fans of kemono artwork, but it closed in 2014, leaving VeeBooru and WildCritters as the main English-speaking boards for such work.
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Some kemono fans are called Kemoner (ケモナー).
The term "Kemoner" has very controversial over the years. It is sometimes used as disparaging one, and some people who are regarded as Kemoner by others loathe being called so.
Since the the middle of the 1990s, the term "Kemoner" had been used mainly by people outside those of equivalent to Kemono fanzine at the whole anime/manga fanzine in the quite negative context like "the sexual perverts" who have lust for animals (often confused with zoophilia) and the person-concerned had used it as self-torture.[clarify] In 1998, the prominent doujinshi circle (Kemono fanzine) KEMONERS which used this term as self-calling for the first time officially was launched, and it may be after this that "Kemoner" is used in the non-negative meanings.
Some definitions argue that Kemoner only stands for gay people in the fanzine, and does not include the straight people[clarify], because since the late of the 1990s they became the majority of Kemono fanzine due to the major kemono-specialized online service FANG that banished straight-adult content from the service.
And "kemoner" is sometimes labeled on people in the neighboring genres, including fans of kemonomimi, which stand for human characters with animal ears and tails, and also zoophiles and transfur. Those who were labeled as Kemoner without identifying themselves as such, loathe being called so because of the reasons listed above.[clarify]
Backwards, some kemoners are very sensitive to the labeling kemonomimi as Kemono. In 13 March 2015, a weblog on Otaku culture "Omaemoka? Me too dayo (お前もか？ Me tooだよッ)" posted the article to introduce Kemono Friends (けものフレンズ), a new social game that all characters are female kemomimi, not anthromorphic jujin. The problem was that the blogger wrote the words on title "for Kemoner" (ケモナーのための), and moreover at the end of the article, the blogger added; "I haven't ever recognized myself as a Kemoner, but I am a Kemoner! Say Hallo!" (ケモナーの自覚はなかったけど、俺ケモナーだわ！よろしく！). These words were severely criticized by many people, presumably kemoners, and otherwise were anticipated that kemoners got mad. And tweets informed it by kemoners were retweeted over 900 times on twitter. Soon the blogger apologized to kemoners and deleted the word "for kemoner" from the title of the article, while analyzing the cause of the trouble was that (s)he recognized the definition of Kemoner as "those who love animal-like something (『けものっぽいものが好きならケモナー』)" Since then this weblog has never been updated (as of January 2017). This incident indicates that how some kemoners show the attitude toward the easygoing confusion between Kemono and Kemonomimi by people outside Kemono fanzine.
These facts make things more complex and it makes the term "Kemoner" very controversial.[clarify] Instead the term Kemonozuki (ケモノ好き) is sometimes used to avoid these problems and troubles though it is not so famous as Kemoner.
However, recently some people especially in the younger generations, begin to use the term Kemoner in the positive meanings, and it is strictly contradicted by the opponents, especially in the older generations.[clarify]
Until the 2010s when the fursuit culture and events emerged, Japanese kemono community was mostly developed in the context of Japanese doujinshi (同人誌) culture, and it may be one of the important characters of Japanese kemono culture, compared with the equivalent in other countries.
Doujinshi refers to the self-published works (similar to fanzines), most of those are uncommercial but paid, and "doujin" refers to the related activities. Doujinshi vending events in Japan emerged in the middle of the 1970s. In 1975, Comiket was held for the first time, and it developed through the upcoming decades to become the premier fan event in Japan. Until the 1980s, The main style of publication was "Joint-doujinshi (合同誌)", where various artists publish their works in a single book because self-publication demanded great expenses. Even after reducing the cost of publishing, and the increase of doujinshis by a single artist ("Kojinshi", 個人誌), in the kemono genre there are still many joint-doujinshis now (as of 2017).
Already in the late 1980s, there were fanzines equivalent to today's kemono doujinshi, like those on Sherlock Hound (1984), and Gene Diver (1994). However, doujinshis featuring anthropomorphic characters only seem to emerge in the first half of the 1990s.
Until "kemono-only" events (vending events featuring only kemono doujinshi)" began in 2011, Comiket was one of the primary places to sell kemono doujinshis. For years, kemono doujin circles sold their works mainly under the genre "original manga for boys" (創作少年, Sousaku Shounen), where original contents for all ages should be sold; though they also sell adult parody works to this day. Other than Comiket, Mimiket (launched in 2000) and Shotaket (launched in 1995) were also the place for selling kemono doujinshis.
The 1990s were the pioneer days for kemono doujinshi circles. Its outset is quite unknown, however some doujinshi circles appeared in this period.
In the early 1990s, a cub doujin-artist Nyantaro (にゃん太郎) launched his doujin circle Wan-Nyan Club (ワンニャン倶楽部), and published several joint-doujinshis on some animal characters in Japanese anime, like 3 Choume no Tama (3丁目のタマ, Tama in Land Lot 3) and Yo yo no Neko Tsumami (ヨーヨーの猫つまみ) etc., until its closure in 2000. Among his joint-doujinshis, "Gomen-ne!"(ゴメンネ！ lit. "Sorry!"), published in 1993, might be the first one with sexual fetish contents, including homosexual. Nyantaro himself didn't use the term "Kemono", but "Animal Character (動物キャラ)".
Meanwhile, in 1992 professional manga artist Yuusaku Toshima (豊島ゆーさく) published "Juukan Ou"(獣姦王, Zoophilian King) with some guest artists, including professional manga artist TRUMP, who later launched a series of his doujinshis Book of Beast (獣之書) featuring female kemono in 1994. 
In the middle of the 1990s, anime and games featuring anthropomorphic characters emerged, like Eto Ranger, Gulkeeva, Klonoa (風のクロノア), and the most well known Pokémon and Digimon franchises, all of which make today's kemono genre flourish.
In January 1999, the incident so-called "Pokémon Doujinshi Incident (ポケモン同人誌事件)" occurred. A doujin artist (not active in kemono genre) who sold a doujinshi on Pokémon that contained zoophilian content was arrested. This incident seriously influenced not only Pokémon doujin, but also the whole Japanese doujin culture.
Throughout the 2000s, kemono doujin continued to be magnified. The number of kemono doujinshi circles became greater and greater throughout the 2000s. In the middle of the 2000s, multiple anime series like Legendz, Onmyo Taisenki (陰陽大戦記), and Summer Wars lead to the publishing of numerous doujinshis.
In 2000, KEMONERS was reorganized into KEMONERS02 under Mahyo Sendo. It became one of the popular doujinshi circles, and published several joint-doujinshis like ZooCan and Syru-Dra, until its closure in 2003.
Meanwhile, some original works had great influence. In 2001, a doujin artist HIRO launched his doujinshi circle Project D Production Committee (プロジェクトD製作委員会, Project D seisaku iinnkai), later renaming it to Kemono Town Production Committee (けものタウン製作委員会, Kemono Town Seisaku Iinnkai). In 2003, HIRO started to publish the serial joint-doujinshi HOWL, all of which have over 100 pages, and numerous famous kemono artists made the debut there in the later days. HOWL was published until 2013, for 20 volumes. In 2004 the amateur doujin manga artist kitora launched his doujinshi VORWERTS, and also published some joint-doujinshis until 2015. Another remarkable artist is gamma-g, who, in 2007, published his doujinshi Bulit Tiger (超獣合金ビルドタイガー) at Comiket. The series lasted until 2014, with 14 volumes.
It was also the middle of the 2000s that the history of Japanese fursuit events began, later than the western countries.
The start of kemono only events already appeared in the late of the 2000s. Syota Scrath (ショタスクラッチ), the doujin book fair specialized to male human cub was founded in 2006 by a doujin artist and event promoter Naoki Matsumura (松村直紀). It is notable that some kemono doujin circles like 096 by Ransho Zero (also known as rankiti (ランキチ)) and Yuu Mutsumi (睦美勇) attended. They sold doujinshis on Kemoshota or teennager anthromorphic jujin and demanded the stable appearance in addition to Comiket, since the opening in 2006. Since then even some gaysexual kemono circles also attended. 
Consequently in the end of the 2000s, a self-appointed "kemoshota only event (ケモショタオンリーイベント)" Fluffy (ふらっふぃ) was held inside Syota Scrath 13 in October 2009 by a professional manga artist Macop, and over 60 doujin circles attended.  It is remarkable that Fluffy invited not only kemono but kemonomimi doujin circles and the picture on the poster was apparently shota with kemonomimi. At Fluffy 2 held in November 2010 in which 60 doujin circles attended understandably kemono doujin circles and kemonomimi doujin circles were mixed.
This shows that kemono only events emerged in the context of Shota doujin, mixed with kemonomimi, although in the kemono only events in the next decade kemonomimi doujin circles are seldom seen, and especially after the trouble around Fur-st and the emergence of Kemoket, the influence of Naoki Matsumura and shota doujin itself was excluded from kemono doujin in the first half of the 2010s.
The 2010s for Japanese kemono offline community is the era of "kemono only events" (ケモノオンリーイベント), vending event featuring only kemono doujinshi.
In 2012, Kemoket was held for the first time by doujin artist Gallone. However, Fur-st was the largest kemono book fair, until the trouble in 2013 at Fur-st 5, where Fur-st showed sample past publications by all attending circles without permission. It was critical to Fur-st to have lost its reputation, due to the lack of preparations for attendees in Fur-st 8 in 2014. The number of Fur-st attendees continues to decease until now (2017). On the other hand, the number of circles and attendees of Kemoket has grown for years. Kemoket recruited over 500 circles for Kemoket 7, to be held in 2017. In addition to starting Kemoket, Gallone launched the new kemono book fair "Ishu Love" in 2016, featuring love between kemono and human characters.
The beginning of the Japanese online community comparable to today's kemono fanzine is quite unknown, however it can be imagined that forums on animals, or on anime and manga etc., in which kemono character appeared, would have emerged with the development of the computer network from 1980's to 1990's. Apart from the commercial BBS system, in Japan the small private BBS system called "Kusanone-BBS (草の根BBS)" was prominent (maybe similar to FidoNet?). Gallone (がろーね), the future founder of Kemoket, was one of the users of BBS. 
Since the middle of the 1990's, individual websites had appeared featuring today's kemono fanzine, and in 1997, FANG (online community), the website hosting service specializing in kemono was launched.
Kemono online community also developed in anonymous online communities, like 2ch (anonymous BBS service since 1999) and Futaba Channel (the prominent image board service in the early 2000's). Moreover, since circa 2000, 2ch Juu (2ch獣), anonymous Oekaki BBS was launched, where kemono artists submitted pictures and communicate with each other. 2ch Juu was separated into various paint BBSes for each genre, for example male, female, dragon, kemoshota (cub), and non-kemono (獣にも属さない系), and they linked to each other. Such paint BBS declined after the emergence of Pixiv in 2007, the largest Japanese general online community for artists as of 2017.
Some individual websites were also prominent in the first half of the 2000's. For example, Eevee Studio was launched in 2003, and became the largest website of adult Pokémon pictures in the middle of the 2000s until its closure in December 2008; Kemono Server (けものサーバ), the new web hosting service for kemono fanzine, launched in 2004 to provide for members the server and domain "kemono.cc"; and Kemo-search (けもサーチ), the website search engine that was founded in the same year.
After 2006, kemono online community has been developing within major Japanese general online communities like mixi, Pixiv and Twitter. On the other hand, individual websites and the neighboring services like Kemosearch, FANG, and Kemono Server declined (they still nominally continue to operate). It is characteristic that today (2015) in Japan, there have been no majestic online community like Fur Affinity or FurNation for 10 years.
"Kikaku" (企画, Project) occupies the significant position on kemono fanzine online. Kikaku is the artistic project between users mostly on pixiv and twitter, participants of which at first post their own character (if the kikaku is a fan fiction, their design is mostly based on its original) on the format called "Chara-shi (キャラシ, character sheet)" created by Kikakunushi (企画主, promoter of the Kikaku) who is usually also an user. And then they interactively post illustlation and manga and communicate with other participants. Participants is determined to act under rules layed out by Kikaku-nushi.  Kikaku-nushi's decision include the manner of enrollment and posting, whether the kikaku is NFSW or not, etc. The most well-known and major kikaku in gerenal is the series of Pixiv Fantasia, the project of drawing fantastic works on pixiv, and within it kemono artists organize Gild, a small community featuring kemono characters.
- Kikaku on Pixiv
- Kikaku on twitter
Kemono events can be generally categorized into two types: fursuit events, and doujin/fanzine vending events. (However, this is not absolute: Fullmoff (a fursuiting event) also has booths for creators, and Kemoket (a fanzine market) has spaces for fursuiting, so it is not possible to simply divide the two types.)
The latter type, kemono doujin events, originated from Japanese doujinshi fair like Comiket that began in the middle of the 1970s. Doujinshis featuring kemono had been published since the 1990s in Comiket etc., however it was not until 2011 that doujinshi fairs featuring only kemono (called "kemono-only events" ケモノオンリーイベント ) appeared.
- Doujinshi fair (fanzine events) specializing in kemono
- Fluffy (ふらっふぃ, 2009, 2010)– Held with Syota Scrath, an event for doujinshi on Kemoshota
- Juujin Matsuri / Kemofesta (獣人祭, 2011/2013) – The first doujinshi-vending event focusing only on kemono
- Fur~st (ふぁ～すと, 2011~present)
- Kemoket (けもケット, 2012~present)
- Mofuket (もふけっと, 2013~present) – always held with Mimiket, an event for doujinshi on human characters with animal ears (kemonomimi) since the early 2000s
- Ishu Love (異種ラブ, 2016~present) – The first doujinshi-vending event featuring love between human and kemono etc
- Fursuiting events
- TransFur (2005~2007)
- Kemocon (2008~present)
- METAMOR GENERATION (2009~2013)
- Mofukai (2010~2015)
- Fullmoff (2011~present)
- Kigukemo Tube (2011~present) – Held in Nagoya
- Kemono Yanen! (2011~2013) – Held in Osaka
- Dragon Kai / Dragon Meet (2011~2013)
- JMoF (2012~present) – The largest fursuiting event/convention in Japan in 2015
- Hokkaido Kemono Kigurumi Off (2012~present) – Held in Sapporo
- Kemono Square (2013~present) – Held in Shizuoka
Kemono in the media
Since at least before 2000, kemono is easily encountered in Anime, Manga, and Video games. Below is a selected list of such works that include kemono/furry characters and were/are the most influential to kemono fanzine.
- Kimba the White Lion (ジャングル大帝, 1965/1989)
- The Wonderful World of Puss 'n Boots (長靴をはいた猫, 1969/1972/1976) – The animation director was Yasuji Mori (森やすじ)
- Fables of the Green Forest (山ねずみロッキーチャック, 1973) – also directed by Yasuji Mori
- Sherlock Hound (名探偵ホームズ, 1984~1985) – One of the directors was Hayao Miyazaki
- Maple Town (メイプルタウン物語, 1986)
- Samurai Pizza Cats (キャッ党忍伝てやんでぇ, 1990~1991)
- RPG Densetsu Hepoi (RPG伝説へポイ, 1990~1991) – Anthromorphic female cat character Miiya (ミーヤ) was popular.
- Kouryuu Densetsu Vilgust (甲竜伝説ヴィルガスト, 1991~1992) – Original video anime
- Shimashimatorano Shimajiro (しましまとらのしまじろう 1993~2008, 2014~)
- Montana Jones (1993)
- Tanoshii Willowtown (楽しいウイロータウン, 1993~1994) – Based on "The Wind in the Willows" by Kenneth Grehame
- Gene Diver (ジーンダイバー, 1994~1995)
- Eto Rangers (十二戦支爆烈エトレンジャー, 1995~1996)
- Gulkeeva (獣戦士ガルキーバ, 1995)
- Alice Detective (アリス探偵局, 1995~1996)
- Pokémon (1996~ present)
- Digimon (1999~2003, 2006, 2010~2012)
- Legendz (レジェンズ, 2004)
- Onmyo Taisenki (陰陽大戦記, 2004~2005)
- Summer Wars (2005)
- One Stormy Night (あらしのよるに, 2005)
- Jewelpet (2010~present)
- Smile Precure! (2012) – The evil wolf character Wolflun was booming in kemono doujin.
- Future Card Buddyfight (2014~present)
- Commercial Video Games (including handheld device)
- Sonic (1991)
- StarFox (1993~present)
- FEDA (1994)
- Pokémon (1995~present)
- Digimon (1997~) – Originally a virtual pet toy, it quickly became a multimedia franchise.
- Klonoa (風のクロノア, 1997~2002)
- Tail Concerto (テイルコンチェルト, 1998) – The first Japanese kemono video game featuring jujin
- Tail Tale (2000) – The first Japanese adult kemono video game
- Shining Wind (2007)
- Paper Man (ペーパーマン) (2009~2016)
- Solatorobo (2010)
- Social/Mobile Games
- Doujin Softs (non-commercial games)
- Taiyo-hen from Phoenix (火の鳥 太陽編, 1986~1988) by Osamu Tezuka
- Dragon Quest Dai no Daibouken (ドラゴンクエスト ダイの大冒険, 1989~1996) – Anthromorphic crocodile character Crocodine (クロコダイン) is popular among kemono doujin.
- Onmyo Taisenki (陰陽大戦記, 2003~2006)
- Gingitsune (ぎんぎつね, 2008~ present)
- Oumagadoki Zoo (逢魔ヶ刻動物園, 2010~2011) – Unfinished
- BEASTERS (2016~ present)
- MADE IN ABYSS (2016~ present) - a female cub character Nanachi (ナナチ) is popular.
- Pixiv, a Japanese art site which contains a substantial amount of kemono.
- FANG (online community)
- Funny animal
- Kemoner, a Japanese community site.
- "Yatte Mo-taa"(Tokyo: Wan-Nyan Club), p.106
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